Turtle Stock Tank – All You Need to Know

Unlike regular tanks, Turtle Stock Tanks are specifically designed to cater to the aquatic needs of turtles. They are made with durable materials that can withstand the weight of water and the constant movement of the turtles.

Whether you have a single turtle or a stock of turtles, these tanks can accommodate them all. With ample space and a natural-looking design, the Turtle Stock Tanks mimic the turtles’ natural habitat, making them feel more at home.

The best thing about Turtle Stock Tanks is that they are easy to set up and maintain. They come with an efficient filtration system that helps keep the water clean and provides a healthy environment for your turtles. Additionally, these tanks also have features like basking platforms and UVB lighting to ensure the overall well-being of your turtles.

What is a Turtle Stock Tank?

A turtle stock tank is a large, water-filled container that is specifically designed to house turtles. These tanks are usually made of durable materials like plastic or fiberglass and come in various sizes to accommodate different turtle species.

Turtle stock tanks typically have a large surface area, which allows turtles to swim and move around freely. They also feature a low water depth, allowing turtles to easily come to the surface for air. Some stock tanks may also include basking areas, where turtles can rest and dry their shells.

How Does a Turtle Stock Tank Work?

The working principle of a turtle stock tank is quite simple. The tank is filled with clean water and equipped with a filtration system to maintain water quality. The tank should also have a heating element or a basking lamp to provide a suitable temperature for the turtles.

Turtles are ectothermic, which means they rely on external heat sources to regulate their body temperature. By providing a warm basking spot or a heated tank, turtle stock tanks create an environment where turtles can thermoregulate and maintain their body temperature. This is essential for their overall health and well-being.

The water in a turtle stock tank should also be regularly monitored and maintained. Turtles produce waste that can quickly deteriorate water quality, so regular water changes and filtration are important to keep the tank clean and safe for the turtles.

Benefits of Using a Turtle Stock Tank

  • Spaciousness: Turtle stock tanks provide a larger swimming area for turtles compared to traditional tanks.
  • Natural environment: These tanks can be customized with vegetation, rocks, and other natural elements to mimic a turtle’s natural habitat.
  • Easy maintenance: The filtration system in a turtle stock tank helps keep the water clean, reducing the frequency of water changes.
  • Temperature control: With a heating element or basking lamp, turtle stock tanks provide a controlled and suitable temperature for turtles.
  • Health benefits: The spaciousness and proper water conditions in a stock tank contribute to the overall health and well-being of turtles.

Overall, a turtle stock tank creates a more natural and spacious living environment for aquatic turtles.

What is a Turtle Stock Tank?

What is a Turtle Stock Tank?

A turtle stock tank is a specially designed container that provides a suitable aquatic environment for turtles to live in. It is essentially a large tank or pond-like structure that allows turtles to swim and move around freely while providing them with a safe and comfortable habitat. The tank is typically made of durable materials such as fiberglass or plastic, and it is designed to meet the unique needs of turtles.

The Basics of Turtle Stock Tanks

The Basics of Turtle Stock Tanks

Turtle stock tanks are an excellent alternative to traditional tanks because they offer plenty of swimming space for reptiles. Turtles are aquatic creatures, and they require ample room to swim and exercise their muscles. In a stock tank, they can move freely and mimic their natural behavior in the wild.

The stock tank is usually deep enough to provide the turtles with a comfortable swimming area, but it also has shallow sections or platforms where they can rest and bask under a heat lamp. This way, they can regulate their body temperature and receive the necessary UV lighting to maintain their health.

Turtle stock tanks are designed with a sloping or graduated bottom to allow easy access for turtles. This means that the tank gradually deepens from one end to the other, providing a smooth transition from the shallow area to the deeper water. It also allows turtles to navigate and explore their environment without any obstacles.

The stock tank is equipped with a filtration system to maintain water quality and clarity. This system helps to remove debris, waste, and other impurities from the water, ensuring a clean and healthy environment for the turtles. Regular water changes and tank maintenance are still necessary, but the filtration system significantly reduces the overall maintenance required.

Overall, a turtle stock tank provides an ideal habitat for turtles, allowing them to thrive in an environment that mimics their natural habitat. It offers ample space for swimming, basking areas for rest and heat, and a filtration system for water quality. With proper setup and maintenance, a turtle stock tank can provide a safe and enjoyable home for your aquatic pets.

How Does Turtle Stock Tank Work?

A turtle stock tank is a specialized enclosure designed for housing and providing a suitable environment for reptiles such as turtles. It is essentially a large container or pond-like structure that allows turtles to swim, bask, and live comfortably.

A stock tank offers the perfect balance of water and land areas for turtles. They can enjoy the aquatic environment by swimming and diving, but also have a dry area where they can rest and bask under a heat lamp or natural sunlight. The size of the tank can vary depending on the number and size of turtles you have, but it should be spacious enough to allow for natural movement and growth.

Turtle stock tanks are typically made from durable materials such as plastic or fiberglass, which are resistant to water damage and can withstand the weight of the turtles. They are also equipped with features like ramps or floating platforms that provide easy access in and out of the tank for the turtles.

One of the main functions of a turtle stock tank is to provide a safe and clean water environment for the turtles. The tank should have a filtration system to remove debris and waste, as well as a heater and thermometer to maintain the water temperature within the ideal range for the turtles. Adequate water quality and temperature are crucial for the health and well-being of aquatic turtles.

In addition to water quality, the tank should also be equipped with proper lighting. Turtles require both UVB and UVA rays for the synthesis of vitamin D3 and for overall well-being. This can be achieved through the use of UVB lamps or natural sunlight, depending on the setup.

Overall, a turtle stock tank provides a suitable and controlled environment for turtles to thrive. It simulates their natural habitat and allows them to exhibit their natural behaviors. With proper care and maintenance, a turtle stock tank can be a great investment for reptile enthusiasts and a safe haven for these aquatic creatures.

Benefits of Using Turtle Stock Tank

Using a turtle stock tank for your aquatic reptile provides numerous benefits for both you and your pet. Here are some of the advantages:

  • Ample Space: A turtle stock tank provides more space for your turtle to swim and explore compared to traditional tanks. The stock tank is usually larger and deeper, allowing your turtle to exhibit natural behaviors and exercise its muscles.
  • Natural Environment: Stock tanks are designed to mimic the natural habitat of turtles. They usually have a large surface area, which allows for better air circulation and sunlight exposure. You can also add aquatic plants and rocks to create a more natural and aesthetically pleasing environment for your turtle.
  • Easy Maintenance: Turtle stock tanks are easier to clean and maintain than traditional tanks. Due to their larger size, you don’t have to clean them as frequently, reducing the hassle of weekly water changes. The ample space also makes it easier to access and remove debris.
  • Health and Wellness: The spacious and natural environment provided by a stock tank promotes a healthy lifestyle for your turtle. It can swim freely, which exercise its muscles and stimulates blood circulation. The availability of sunlight also aids in the synthesis of Vitamin D, essential for shell and bone health.
  • Compatibility: Turtle stock tanks are compatible with various turtle species. Whether you have a red-eared slider, a painted turtle, or a musk turtle, they will all thrive in a stock tank environment. The larger size also allows you to house multiple turtles comfortably.
  • Durability: Stock tanks are made of durable materials such as high-density polyethylene, which are resistant to cracks and leaks. They can withstand the weight and movements of turtles, ensuring the tank will last for a long time.

Choosing the Right Turtle Stock Tank

1. Size

First and foremost, determine the size of the tank based on the size of your turtle. A larger tank will provide more swimming space and allow your turtle to exercise and explore. The general rule of thumb is to provide at least 10 gallons of water for every inch of your turtle’s shell length.

2. Material

Stock tanks are available in various materials, such as plastic, fiberglass, and acrylic. Each material has its advantages and disadvantages. Plastic tanks are lightweight and affordable, but they may scratch easily. Fiberglass tanks are durable and easy to clean but can be more expensive. Acrylic tanks offer better visibility but are prone to scratching and may require extra care.

3. Shape

Turtle stock tanks come in different shapes, including circular, rectangular, and oval. The shape you choose should depend on the space available in your home and the specific needs of your turtle. Rectangular tanks provide more swimming space, while circular tanks can be aesthetically pleasing and fit well in smaller areas.

4. Accessories

Consider the accessories you want to include in your turtle stock tank. These may include basking platforms, filtration systems, heating lamps, and UVB lights. Basking platforms are essential for turtles to rest and dry off, while filtration systems help maintain water quality. Heating lamps and UVB lights are necessary to create the ideal temperature and lighting conditions for your turtle’s health.

5. Ease of Maintenance

Maintaining a turtle stock tank requires regular cleaning and water changes. Consider choosing a tank that is easy to clean and has a drain plug for convenient water removal. Look for tanks with smooth surfaces and minimal crevices where dirt and bacteria can accumulate. This will make maintenance tasks more manageable and ensure a healthy environment for your turtle.

6. Budget

Lastly, consider your budget when choosing a turtle stock tank. The price can vary depending on the size, material, and brand. It’s essential to strike a balance between quality and affordability. Research different options, read reviews, and compare prices to find the best turtle stock tank that fits your budget and your turtle’s needs.

By considering these factors and doing thorough research, you can choose the perfect turtle stock tank that provides a comfortable and enjoyable aquatic habitat for your reptile friend.

Setting Up Your Turtle Stock Tank

1. Find the right location: Choose a location for your turtle stock tank that provides a stable and safe environment for your reptile. Avoid placing it near direct sunlight or in an area with extreme temperature changes.

2. Prepare the tank: Before adding water, thoroughly clean the tank to remove any dirt or debris. Rinse it with water and mild soap, and then rinse again to remove any soap residue. Ensure there are no sharp edges or objects that could harm your turtle.

3. Add water: Fill the tank with water, making sure it is deep enough for your turtle to swim and dive comfortably. The water level should be at least two times the length of your turtle’s shell.

4. Install a filtration system: A good filtration system is crucial for maintaining clean and healthy water for your turtle. It helps remove waste, chemicals, and bacteria, keeping the water quality in check.

5. Set up a basking area: Turtles need a dry area where they can climb out of the water and bask under a heat lamp. This area should be equipped with a platform or rocks that your turtle can easily climb onto.

6. Provide hiding spots: Turtles enjoy having hiding spots in their tank where they can retreat and feel secure. Use rocks, logs, or artificial plants to create hiding spots for your turtle.

7. Add aquatic plants: Aquatic plants not only enhance the aesthetic appeal of the tank but also serve as natural filtration agents and provide a sense of security for your turtle. Choose plants that are safe for turtles and can thrive in the water environment.

8. Monitor water temperature and quality: Regularly check the temperature and pH levels of the water to ensure they are within the optimal range for your turtle’s species. Use a reliable thermometer and water testing kit for accurate measurements.

9. Provide a proper diet: Along with a well-maintained tank, a balanced diet is essential for your turtle’s health. Research the dietary requirements of your turtle’s species and provide a varied diet consisting of commercial turtle pellets, fresh vegetables, and occasional live or frozen prey.

10. Perform regular maintenance: Regularly clean the tank, change the water, and check the equipment to ensure everything is functioning properly. Remove any uneaten food or debris to maintain water quality.

By following these steps, you can create a comfortable and thriving environment for your turtle in the stock tank. Remember to always prioritize the well-being and safety of your reptile by providing proper care and attention.

Essential Equipment for Your Turtle Stock Tank

  1. Stock Tank: The first and most important piece of equipment you’ll need is a suitable stock tank. Look for a tank that is large enough for your turtle to swim and move around comfortably. It should also have a smooth, non-slippery surface to prevent injuries to the turtle’s shell.
  2. Water Filtration System: To maintain clean and healthy water for your turtle, you’ll need a water filtration system. This will help remove debris, waste, and harmful chemicals from the water, keeping it safe and clear for your turtle to swim in.
  3. Heater: Turtles are ectothermic, which means they rely on external sources of heat to regulate their body temperature. Therefore, it’s essential to have a heater in the stock tank to provide the turtle with a warm environment. Make sure to choose a heater specifically designed for aquatic reptiles.
  4. UVB Light: UVB light is crucial for the proper growth and development of turtles. This type of light helps them produce vitamin D3, which is essential for calcium absorption. A UVB light fixture should be placed above the stock tank and provide the turtle with the required amount of UVB rays.
  5. Hideouts and Basking Platforms: Turtles need places to rest and hide in their stock tank. Provide them with multiple hiding spots and basking platforms where they can climb out of the water and soak up some heat. These platforms should be large enough to accommodate the turtle’s size and have a non-slip surface.
  6. Water Conditioner: Tap water often contains chlorine and other chemicals that can be harmful to turtles. Use a water conditioner to remove these chemicals and make the water safe for your turtle to swim in. Follow the instructions on the conditioner bottle for the appropriate dosage.
  7. Thermometer: Monitoring the water temperature is crucial for the well-being of your turtle. Use a reliable thermometer to ensure the water remains within the appropriate temperature range for your turtle’s species.
  8. Net: A net is handy for safely catching your turtle during tank cleanings or routine maintenance. Choose a net with small holes to prevent the turtle from getting tangled or injured.
  9. Food and Feeding Supplies: Stock up on appropriate turtle food, such as pellets, vegetables, and live or frozen prey. Also, have feeding dishes or platforms where you can place the food and make it easily accessible for your turtle.
  10. Water Test Kit: Regularly testing the water parameters is essential to maintain a healthy environment for your turtle. Invest in a water test kit that can measure pH, ammonia, nitrate, and nitrite levels. This will allow you to make any necessary adjustments to ensure optimal water quality.

By having these essential equipment items for your turtle stock tank, you can create a comfortable and safe habitat for your aquatic reptile to thrive in and enjoy a happy and healthy life.

Turtle Stock Tank Maintenance Tips

Maintaining a turtle stock tank is essential for the health and well-being of your aquatic reptiles. Here are some tips to help you keep your turtle stock tank in the best possible condition:

4. Temperature Regulation: Turtles require specific temperature ranges to thrive. Use a thermometer to monitor the water temperature regularly. Maintain a temperature gradient in the tank, with a basking area where the turtle can climb out of the water to dry off and regulate its body temperature.

5. UVB Lighting: Turtles need UVB light to metabolize calcium and maintain healthy shell growth. Invest in a quality UVB lamp and position it over the basking area, ensuring that the turtle can access it for a few hours each day.

6. Feeding Regimen: Provide a balanced diet for your turtle, consisting of pellets, live or frozen foods, and vegetables. Avoid overfeeding, as excess food can contribute to poor water quality.

7. Regular Health Checks: Monitor your turtle’s behavior, appetite, and appearance to catch any signs of illness or injury early on. If you notice any changes or concerns, consult a reptile veterinarian for professional advice.

8. Preventative Measures: To minimize the risk of illness and stress, maintain a clean and stress-free environment for your turtle. Avoid introducing any new turtles or fish without appropriate quarantine and research.

By following these maintenance tips, your turtle stock tank will provide a clean and healthy habitat for your reptile to swim and thrive in. Remember to always prioritize the well-being of your turtle and provide them with the proper care they need.

Common Issues with Turtle Stock Tanks

Another issue that turtle owners may encounter is the accumulation of algae in the tank. Algae growth is natural in aquatic environments, but excessive algae can be unsightly and affect water quality. To prevent excessive algae growth, it is crucial to maintain proper filtration and lighting in the tank. Additionally, regular cleaning of the tank and removing any uneaten food or debris can help control algae growth.

Lastly, another issue that turtle owners may face is the potential for escapes. Some turtle species are excellent climbers and can find their way out of poorly secured tanks. It is essential to ensure that the tank has a secure lid or cover to prevent your turtle from escaping and potentially injuring itself or causing damage to your home.

By being aware of these common issues and taking appropriate measures to address them, you can provide a safe and comfortable environment for your turtle in a stock tank. Regular maintenance, monitoring water quality, and addressing any issues promptly will help ensure the longevity and well-being of your aquatic reptile.

Turtle Stock Tank Safety Measures

2. Water Quality: Regularly monitor and maintain the water quality in the stock tank. Turtles are sensitive to water conditions and require clean and properly filtered water to stay healthy. Use a good filtration system to remove debris and waste, and regularly test the water parameters such as pH, ammonia, and nitrate levels.

4. Secure Lid: To prevent escape or injury, it is crucial to have a secure lid on the stock tank. Turtles are adept climbers and can easily climb out of the tank if there is no secure lid in place. The lid should have proper ventilation to allow for air circulation.

5. Avoid Sharp Decorations: When decorating the turtle stock tank, avoid using sharp or pointed decorations. Turtles have delicate shells that can easily be damaged or scratched by sharp objects. Choose natural and smooth materials such as rocks, driftwood, and plants to create a safe and stimulating environment for your turtles.

6. Supervise Interaction: If you have children or other pets, always supervise their interaction with the turtle stock tank. Turtles can become stressed or injured if mishandled or harassed. Educate yourself and others on proper handling techniques to minimize the risk of injury to both the turtles and humans.

7. Regular Cleaning: Establish a regular cleaning routine for the turtle stock tank. Remove uneaten food, waste, and debris from the water surface and substrate. Clean and disinfect the tank periodically to prevent the buildup of harmful bacteria or parasites. Use non-toxic cleaning agents specifically designed for reptile habitats.

8. Water Depth: Ensure that the water depth in the stock tank is appropriate for the size and age of the turtles. Younger turtles may require shallower water to prevent drowning, while larger turtles need deeper water to fully submerge and swim. Provide various water depths to cater to different turtle needs.

By following these turtle stock tank safety measures, you can provide a secure and comfortable environment for your turtles to thrive and enjoy their aquatic habitat.

Turtle Stock Tank Safety Measures

1. Secure the Tank

2. Keep the Water Clean

2. Keep the Water Clean

Turtles are aquatic creatures and require clean water to thrive. Regularly clean and maintain the water in the stock tank to keep it free from bacteria and other harmful substances. Regular water changes and the use of a water filter can help maintain the water quality.

3. Provide Proper Heating and Lighting

Turtles need access to both heat and UVB lighting to maintain their overall health. Use a heater to keep the water temperature at an appropriate level and provide UVB lighting to ensure they receive the necessary amount of sunlight. However, make sure to position the lighting and heating elements in such a way that they do not cause harm or pose a fire hazard.

4. Avoid Sharp Objects

4. Avoid Sharp Objects

Remove any sharp or hazardous objects from the tank that could potentially injure your turtle. This includes decorations, rocks, or other items that have jagged edges or could be swallowed, leading to potential health issues.

5. Provide Hiding Places

Turtles need a place to hide and rest, so be sure to provide them with ample hiding spots in the stock tank. You can use plants, rocks, or other decorations to create a safe and comfortable environment for your turtle.

6. Supervise Interactions

Never leave your turtle unattended in the stock tank, especially if you have other pets or young children around. Supervise any interactions to ensure the safety of both your turtle and others.

By following these safety measures, you can ensure that your turtle stock tank provides a safe and suitable environment for your aquatic pet.

Turtle Stock Tank vs. Traditional Tanks

Benefits of a Turtle Stock Tank

1. Size: Turtle stock tanks are typically larger than traditional tanks, providing more space for your turtle to swim and explore. This extra space is essential for maintaining the health and happiness of your aquatic friend.

2. Durability: Turtle stock tanks are designed to withstand the wear and tear that comes with housing turtles. These tanks are made from sturdy materials that can handle the claws and beaks of turtles, ensuring longevity.

3. Easy Maintenance: Cleaning and maintaining a turtle stock tank is generally easier compared to traditional tanks. The design of these tanks allows for smoother water changes and easier access to the bottom, where waste tends to accumulate.

Why Choose a Turtle Stock Tank?

1. Natural Swimming Experience: Turtles are aquatic creatures that require ample space to swim and exercise. A turtle stock tank offers a more natural swimming experience, allowing your turtle to navigate and explore just like they would in a pond or natural water body.

2. Customization: Turtle stock tanks can be customized to replicate the natural habitat of your turtle. You can add aquatic plants, rocks, and other decorations to create a visually appealing and enriching environment for your turtle.

3. Healthier Water: Turtle stock tanks often have a larger water volume compared to traditional tanks. This means that water quality is more easily maintained, resulting in a healthier environment for your turtle. The larger volume also dilutes waste, reducing the risk of ammonia build-up.

Overall, a turtle stock tank provides a better living environment for your aquatic friend, promoting their physical and mental well-being. Consider making the switch to a turtle stock tank for a happier and healthier turtle.

Turtle Stock Tank: Expert Advice and Tips

If you are considering setting up a turtle stock tank for your aquatic reptile, there are some expert tips and advice that can help you create the perfect environment for your turtle to thrive.

1. Choose the right size tank: When selecting a turtle stock tank, it’s crucial to consider the size of your turtle. Turtles need plenty of space to swim and move around comfortably. A general rule of thumb is to provide at least 10 gallons of water per inch of the turtle’s shell length.

2. Provide a basking area: Turtles are cold-blooded creatures and need a basking area where they can come out of the water and warm up. This can be achieved by adding a platform or a floating dock to the tank. Make sure the basking area is easily accessible and provides a safe, non-slip surface for your turtle.

3. Maintain proper water temperature: Turtles require specific water temperatures to thrive. Invest in a reliable water heater and thermometer to ensure that the water temperature is within the optimal range for your turtle species. The recommended water temperature for most turtle species is around 75-80°F (24-27°C).

4. Filter the water: Keeping the water in your turtle stock tank clean and free of debris is essential for your turtle’s health. Invest in a quality water filter that is suitable for the size of your tank. Regularly check and clean the filter to ensure its optimal performance.

5. Provide UVB lighting: Turtles need UVB light to synthesize vitamin D3, which is essential for bone health. Use a UVB lamp specifically designed for reptiles and place it over the basking area of the tank. Provide 10-12 hours of UVB light per day to ensure your turtle’s well-being.

6. Create a natural habitat: To make your turtle feel more at home, consider adding aquatic plants, rocks, and driftwood to the tank. These provide hiding spots and stimulation for your turtle, simulating a more natural environment.

7. Feed a balanced diet: Turtles require a varied diet that includes both commercial turtle pellets and fresh foods such as small fish, insects, and leafy greens. Consult a veterinarian or reptile specialist to ensure you are providing the right nutrition for your turtle.

8. Regular water changes: Regularly changing a portion of the water in the tank helps maintain water quality. Aim to change about 25-50% of the water every two weeks, depending on the tank size and the number of turtles.

9. Monitor water quality: Test the water regularly for ammonia, nitrite, and nitrate levels using a water testing kit. High levels of these compounds can be harmful to your turtle. Take appropriate measures to maintain water quality within safe parameters.

10. Observe your turtle: Spend time observing your turtle’s behavior and appearance. Look out for any signs of illness or stress, such as loss of appetite, lethargy, shell abnormalities, or unusual swimming behavior. If you notice any concerning symptoms, consult a veterinarian as soon as possible.

By following these expert tips and advice, you can create a safe and comfortable environment for your turtle in a stock tank. Remember, proper care and maintenance are key to ensuring the well-being of your aquatic reptile.

Where to Buy Turtle Stock Tanks

If you are in the market for a turtle stock tank, there are several options available for you to consider. Whether you are a beginner or an experienced turtle owner, finding the right stock tank for your aquatic turtles is essential.

One of the best places to start your search is at your local pet store. Many pet stores carry a variety of stock tanks designed specifically for turtles. They often have knowledgeable staff who can help you choose the right size and style for your turtles’ needs.

Another option is to visit online retailers that specialize in reptile supplies. These websites often have a wide selection of turtle stock tanks to choose from, ranging in size and price. You can compare different options and read customer reviews to help you make an informed decision.

In addition to pet stores and online retailers, you may also find turtle stock tanks at agricultural supply stores or garden centers. These stores often carry stock tanks for livestock or fish ponds, which can also be suitable for turtles.

If you prefer to buy used, you can check local classified ads or online marketplaces such as Craigslist or Facebook Marketplace. Many people sell their used turtle stock tanks when they are no longer needed, so you may be able to find a good deal.

When buying a turtle stock tank, there are a few factors to consider. Firstly, make sure the tank is large enough to accommodate your turtles comfortably. Turtles need enough water to swim and dive, so a tank that provides adequate space is important for their well-being.

Additionally, consider the material of the tank. Turtle stock tanks are typically made of durable plastic or fiberglass. These materials are non-toxic and easy to clean, making them ideal for aquatic environments. Avoid tanks made of glass or other materials that can shatter or harm your turtles.

Turtle Stock Tank Reviews and Recommendations

One of the top-rated turtle stock tanks on the market is the AquaTerra Turtle Pond. This tank offers a large water area and a basking platform, allowing your turtle to swim and bask in the warmth of the sun. It also features a built-in ramp for easy access in and out of the water, which is essential for turtles with a shell.

Another popular option is the Exo Terra Turtle Terrarium. This tank is designed to mimic the natural habitat of turtles, featuring a land area with plants and a water area with a filtration system. It also has a secure lid to prevent your turtle from escaping.